Poultry vaccination, causes of vaccination failure, prevention and solutions

Poultry vaccination, causes of vaccination failure, prevention and solutions

  1. VACCINE-- This Is a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or many infections, different than most medicines that treat infections, vaccines prevent an outbreak of infection in animals.

VACCINATION-- This Is a prevention method with a vaccine to produce immunity against infection or diseases.

       TYPES OF VACCINES IN POULTRY

  1. Live vaccines e.g Lasota vaccine,gumboro vaccine, etc.
  2.  killed or oil vaccine. e.g EDS vaccine, coli vaccines, etc.

         DISEASES THAT CAN BE VACCINATED AGAINST IN POULTRY

Newcastle disease

  1. Newcastle disease
  2. Infectious bursal disease
  3. Marek's disease
  4. Infectious bronchitis.
  5. Fowlpox
  6. E-coli.
  7. Coryza etc.

VACCINATION METHODS IN POULTRY

  1. In-ovo method-- This is a method of vaccination on some components of an egg before hatching to provide immunity against diseases.
  2. Ocular vaccination method-- This is a vaccination method whereby eyedropper is used to administer a recommended dose of vaccine in one of the bird's eye.
  3. Wing stab-- This is a vaccination method whereby vaccines are given with a special kind of needle or needles pushed into the web of the wing avoiding contact with bones and muscles to prevent injury to the bird.
  4. Spray method-- In this style of vaccination a sprayer is used to spray a recommended dose of vaccine in the poultry pen to provide immunity against diseases to the flocks.
  5. Oral method-- This form of vaccination the vaccine is administered through the mouth of the bird, while it makes its way via the lungs before entering the body.
  6. Drinking method -- In this method of vaccination a well-recommended technique is used while administering accurate doses into a certain quantity of drinking water for the birds.
  7. Nasal-- This method involves applying the vaccines into the birds' nostrils by drop.
  8. Subcutaneous injection— In this process, the vaccine is administered under the skin, usually with the prescribed dose of vaccine at the back of the neck.
  9. Intramuscular method-- This method of administration needles or injectors are used to vaccinate into the breast muscle of the bird.
  10. Feather follicle-- In this method vaccines are given into the holes in the skin of the bird where feathers grow.
  11. Cloacal— This includes applying the vaccines to the cloaca mucus membranes using an abrasive applicator.

HANDLING OF VACCINES

  1.  Vaccines should be handled with all carefulness to retain their potency.
  2. The vaccine should not be kept under the rays of direct sunlight.
  3. Transport vaccines in a well-monitored temperature.
  4.  Always maintain the cold chain as advice by the producers.
  5.  Always use approved administrative methods.
  6.  Always store where the temperature is stable and been monitored.         

VACCINE OR VACCINATION FAILURE IN POULTRY

Vaccine or vaccination failure-- This Is a condition whereby the vaccines administered to a bird do not develop a proper antibody titer level and are vulnerable to a disease outbreak.

CAUSES OF VACCINE FAILURE IN POULTRY

  1. Immunosuppressive disease.
  2. Improper vaccine formulation.
  3. Expired or broken vaccine.
  4. Stress.
  5. Wrong dosage.
  6. Climate factors.
  7. Improper handling of the vaccine.
  8. Poor vaccination timing.
  9. Late vaccine administration;
  10. Chlorinated water and vaccination equipment.
  11. Use of wrong vaccination equipment.
  12.  Use of wrong vaccines for a particular strain of the disease.
    Vaccination of sick birds.

        HOW TO PREVENT VACCINE FAILURE  IN POULTRY

  1.  Avoid vaccinating sick and stressed birds.
  2. Proper use of vaccines.
  3. Dechlorinate your water and vaccination equipment.
  4. Use of stabilizers.
  5. Use of immune boosters.
  6. Avoid the use of broken and expired vaccines.
  7. Adhere to the manufacturer's guidelines
  8. Always maintain the cold chain of the vaccine until the time of use.
  9. Maintain early vaccination and accurate dosage for vaccines.
  10. Use a vaccine for the local strain of the virus.

              SIGNS OF VACCINATION FAILURE 

  1. Twisted neck in birds.
  2. Morbidity.
  3. Mortality.
  4. An outbreak of already vaccinated strains of diseases or viruses.
  5. Paralysis.
  6. Depression.

SOLUTION OR REMEDIES TO HELP THE EFFECTS OF VACCINATION FAILURE IN POULTRY 

  1. Revaccinate the healthy birds.
  2. Cull birds showing signs of any form of the disease.
  3. Run a titer test in your flocks.
  4. Use of immune boosters.

                     CONCLUSION

Vaccination is an essential part of poultry farming, therefore proper handling and administration of vaccine will provide well need immunity to your flocks thereby minimizing the outbreak of disease and other related losses, increasing the productivity, income, and return of investment (ROI), also contributing to the positive growth of poultry industry in your country.

                       NEED MORE HELP?

I believe this article has provided much-needed solutions to your vaccination problems, but if there is part of this article you are unclear about you can ask questions in the comments sections and it will be replied within a short time.

VACCINATION RELATED FAQ

  1. What causes vaccine failure in flocks?.
  2. What are the possible solution to remedy the effects of vaccination failure?.
  3. Is vaccination compulsory in poultry farming?.
  4. How to know or check the live vaccines and expired vaccines?.
  5. What is the importance of vaccination in poultry?

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