CAUSES OF HIGH MORTALITY RATE IN BROILER PRODUCTION
(1) PROBLEMS FROM PARENT STOCK OR BREEDER'S FARM -- These occurs when the parent stock or the breeder's farm is not well managed/taken care of or when there is an outbreak of the disease in breeder's farm without been treated properly and the disease is been transmitted to eggs leading to the production of unhealthy or already infected chicks, thereby causing early mortality of chicks.
(2) HATCHERY PROBLEMS -- This happens when there is an error during the incubation period of an egg in an incubator,it might be human or mechanical error leading to the hatching of substandard or unhealthy chicks.
(3) TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS -- Vehicle can breakdown during the transportation of chicks and bad traffic problems during transportation or other vehicle-related problems leading to the prolonged stay of chicks on transit causing stress and weakness of the early hatched chicks leading to the early mortality of chicks during the early days if brooding.
(4)POOR/BAD BROODING METHODS -- This problem occurs when a farmer or the farm attendant did not provide all the essential needs for proper chicks brooding like poor regulation of temperature, poor lighting, bad brooding equipment etc leading to high early mortality rate in chicks.
(5) POOR HOUSING/PEN OR FLOOR SPACE -- Broilers generally do better in a well constructed or well-ventilated pen therefore when the spacing of broiler is poor in a poorly constructed /ventilated pen it could lead to increased death rate in broilers.
(6)SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROME (SDS) -- This is a problem seen in fast weight gaining broiler chicks with no sign of sickness or deformities die suddenly, leading to increased mortality.
(7) POOR BIOSECURITY -- It refers to poor or no measures aimed at preventing the introduction or spread of harmful organisms to animals leading to an outbreak of disease thereby causing mortality in broilers.
(8) BAD/POOR MANAGEMENT-- These ranges from poor or inexperienced farm attendants,bad farming equipment, carelessness, and negligence, etc leading to outbreak and mortality in broilers.
(9) DISEASE OUTBREAK -- This is an abnormal state that affects the structure or function of all part or some part of an organism negatively, thereby weakening the immune system of the broiler leading to mortality, disease can come in many forms e.g-
(a) Viral e.g Newcastle disease etc.
(b) Bacterial e.g fowl cholera,e-coli etc.
(c) Protozoan e.g coccidiosis etc.
(d) Parasitic e.g worms etc.
(e) Fungi etc.
(10) BAD OR EXPIRED FEED -- the feeding of chicks with bad formulated feed or expired feed can be toxic or producing mycotoxins to the broilers' immune system causing high mortality.
SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH HIGH MORTALITY IN BROILERS PRODUCTION.
(1) Ensure you get your chicks from a reliable or trusted source.
(2) Check properly the chick you are buying or stocking in your pen if is standard,healthy and very active before stocking.
(3) Ensure proper brooding methods.
(4) Stock birds in only well constructed or well ventilated pen with good floor spacing requirements.
(5) In the case of sudden death syndrome (SDS) reduce your feeding rate and feeding time.
(6) Improve your biosecurity practices.
(7) Employ an experienced person or farm attendant and always be active and monitor all the farming activities in your farm.
(8) Always make use of good vaccinations/medication chart.
(9) Proper culling of sick or infected birds.
(10) Ensure the chicks are transported in a good or reliable means of transportation from the hatchery to farm.
(11) Proper disposal of dead broilers and manure.
(12) Always go for a sensitive test and post mortem when there is an outbreak of disease.
(13) Treat or vaccinate with an approved or good vaccines and drugs.
(14) Use of fresh and newly produced broiler feed free of mycotoxins.
Mortality is a great economic loss to the poultry industry as such it is very important to practices a standard farming system to reduce or stop the negative effects of high mortality rate in poultry farming,thereby increasing production and sustaining or encouraging the growth of poultry industry.
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